Build K-2 Literacy Skills Using Student-Created ABC Books

Creating ABC books in the classroom is a great way to reinforce letter/sound correspondence. When making an ABC book, a common approach is for children to write each letter on a separate page and then draw or glue pictures that begin with that letter on each page. The limitation of this approach is that “reading” the book is somewhat limited. What if you could reinforce letter/sound correspondence while also building vocabulary, increasing rhyme awareness, incorporating sight words, and developing comprehension? Let’s see how easily this can be accomplished in three easy steps.

STEP 1: Choose a Theme
Choose one particular theme for an entire ABC book so you can focus on specific content and infuse that content into your literacy activities. For example, you could choose a transportation theme.

STEP 2: Brainstorm a List
Create an ABC list of items that fit your topic of study. Invite children to brainstorm and offer ideas. It is always helpful to have pictures (better yet, photos) of each item on your list. This will offer children ideas and build vocabulary when they begin creating their books. Here is a sample list for a transportation theme:

A=ambulance, airplane
B=bicycle, boat
C=car, carousel, canoe
D=dog sled
F=Ferris wheel, ferry
H=helicopter, hot air balloon
I=inner tube
J=jeep, jet ski
M=motorcycle, motor home
N=number 99 (race car)
O=old buggy
P=paddleboat, police car
Q=quiet hang glider
R=roller coaster
S=scooter, skateboard
T=truck, train
X=excellent cruise ship
Y=yacht, yellow taxi
Z=zip line

STEP 3: Create a Template
This is the most important step. This is where you change simple ABC pages to a read-aloud interactive book. Create a template using sight words leaving blanks for letters and the words that begin with the corresponding beginning sound.

___ is for _____.
How many can ride?
___ is for _____.
Is it for land, water or sky?

Use the template to create a reproducible fill-in page that offers children opportunities to write letters and words and allows space for them to draw pictures that illustrate their choices.
Invite children to complete the frame with their own A-Z choices.

C is for carousel.
How many can ride?

D is for dog sled.
Is it for land, water, or sky?

E is for elevator.
How many can ride?

F is for Ferris wheel.
Is it for land, water or sky?

When children have created a page for every letter of the alphabet, they can compile their pages in ABC order to create an entire book. When children read their book, they will be strengthening their comprehension strategies as they respond to the question prompts.

For more ideas and complete ready-to-go resources that offer full-color photos, rhyming sight word frames, and bookmaking reproducibles for a variety of themes check out

Vitamins for Penis Function – The ABC’s of Penis Care

Keeping the body and mind healthy and promoting adequate penis function is something all men should strive for. Eating healthy foods, exercising, managing stress, and yes, going to the doctor when sick, are all important to living a long and satisfying life. With so much information available these days, it is easy to get bogged down with good fats, bad fats, high carbs, low carbs, protein, fiber and vitamins.

Even the most well-intentioned among us have difficulty balancing the essential vitamins and nutrients to meet the daily recommended intake. While some men blow off the importance of a balanced diet, believe it or not, all those nutrients pack a powerful punch in terms of penis health. Boosting penis function really is as easy as A, B, C… and D too.

Vitamins for Penis Health

Vitamin A: Vitamin A is known for its anti-bacterial properties. When it comes to a man’s equipment, this adds up to odor protection in an area where – let’s face it – it is important to be fresh and clean. Vitamin A not only wipes out unpleasant odors, it helps fight bacteria that can lead to fungus, thrush, or yeast infections – another condition no man wants to see on his twig and berries. Bacteria thrive in the warm, moist crevices of the genitals, and applying vitamin A topically can help to ward them off.

Vitamin B5: Vitamin B5 helps provide the boost the penis needs to function at its best. The vitamin improves cell metabolism while bolstering immune system response, helping to keep the manhood healthy and kicking. B5 has also been linked to an increase in testosterone, which can go the distance in improving a sluggish libido, too.

Vitamin C: Not just for busting colds anymore, vitamin C encourages the body’s collagen production, which can help improve penile tissue firmness. It also contributes to the health of the blood vessels, improving circulation and allowing for increased engorgement of the area.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D is critical to healthy skin and bones, and when it comes to the penis, a vitamin D infused cream can help keep the skin hydrated and smooth. Vitamin D soothes dry, cracked skin, which can lead to irritation and uncomfortable itching. Vitamin D also has healing properties and has been found to improve skin conditions like psoriasis and rashes.

Caring for the Penis

When it comes to penis care, remembering the ABC’s is an easy way to make sure one is getting the needed vitamins for optimal penis health. Eating a balanced diet high in fruits and vegetables can help a man reach the recommended daily intake of Vitamins A, B5, C, and D. For men who are less than fond of leafy greens, a vitamin-enriched penis vitamin formula may be the way to go. Applying the formula directly to the skin allows for maximum absorption of the vitamins right where they are going to be most beneficial. When vitamins are ingested orally, they are absorbed more slowly through the digestive track and transported throughout the body, whereas a penis cream targets the penis giving the user a more concentrated dose.

Integrating a penis health creme (most professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) into one’s daily routine is as easy as 1-2-3: 1) Shower as usual, washing the area with gentle soap and water. 2) Pat dry with a towel, leaving some moisture on the skin – do not rub as that can damage the delicate penile skin. 3) Slather the member in vitamin-rich penis oil to help lock in the post-shower moisture, and go about the rest of the grooming routine as normal. So when it comes to penis care, there is no need to get caught up in confusing mumbo jumbo, just remember the ABC’s and 123’s!

The ABCs of Towing a Trailer: Know Your GVWRs and GCWRs

When horse owners decide to transport their horse for a short or long distance drive, they tend to focus on choosing the most suitable trailer to either purchase or rent. Of course, since the horse’s safety and comfort is of primary concern, the choice of trailer is key. That being said, one of the biggest mistakes people make is neglecting to also consider the tow vehicle they intend to utilize as well. The overall safety and well being of your horse, the vehicle driver and passengers, as well as others on the road, depends upon choosing a vehicle that can handle the combined weight of your trailer, horse, passengers and equipment. The key metrics to keep in mind to ensure you have the right trailer/tow truck combination are the Trailer GVWR and the Tow Vehicle GCWR.

Trailer GVWR

If you already have a trailer picked out (or already own one), and are ready to choose the proper tow vehicle, you need to know how much your trailer weighs. More specifically, you need to know the GVWR, or Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. The GVWR, which is usually printed on a sticker on the inside door of your trailer, represents the manufacturer’s recommended capacity, or the maximum total weight of the trailer itself and whatever you are hauling in it. Importantly, the trailer should never be loaded past the GVWR.

Why use the GVWR as the weight metric that will help determine the tow vehicle you use, even if you never intend to load the trailer to maximum capacity? Because that will help give a margin of safety to the driver in light of the uneven weight distribution of a horse (they are top heavy), and the shifting weight that results from the fact that you will have live cargo.

Tow Vehicle GCWR

Now that you know the weight of your trailer when it is full, the second key metric that is important is the gross combined weight rating (GCWR) of your towing vehicle. Similar to the GVWR of the trailer, the GCWR of the tow vehicle represents the maximum recommended weight that a vehicle can safely pull, which includes the weight of the vehicle itself, its passengers and its load, including the fully loaded trailer.

As a result, the GCWR of your tow vehicle needs to be higher than the weight of the tow vehicle, plus the GVWR, or the maximum total weight of the fully loaded trailer. In other words, as the required weight of the trailer and the amount for the horses you’re pulling increase, the GCWR of the vehicle must increase as well. Say, for example, the GVWR of your horse trailer is 7,000 lb, and you are considering a half-ton (5,000 lbs) pick-up truck such as the Chevy 1500. You will need to make sure that the vehicle has a GCWR of at least 12,000 lbs. Of course, the closer you think you will actually be to the 12,000 lb limit, the more you should probably consider the next truck size up. The additional cost of $3,000 or so should more than pay for itself in less wear and tear on the vehicle over time.

It is also important to consider the terrain you expect to ride most frequently. Mountain driving, for example, is difficult on the ascent, but even more difficult on the brakes on the way down, so it’s better to have a significantly higher truck capacity if you plan on hauling your horse in the mountains often. Keep in mind, also, that depending upon the weight of your trailer, you may be able to use an SUV or other light truck, unless you are hauling a gooseneck trailer, which requires a pick up truck or larger unit with a bed for the gooseneck hitch.

As a general rule, it is best to be conservative and choose a more powerful trailer/tow capacity combination than you think you will need. The bottom line is, maneuverability and the ability to accelerate and/or brake without difficulty can be the key to a pleasant trip, for sure, but more importantly, it can also be the difference between life or death on the road.